Pyrethroids modify the sodium channels in neuronal membranes and thereby disrupt the electrical signaling in the nervous system when high doses of pyrethroids are ingested orally central nervous system symptoms may occur which include excitation and convulsions in general pyrethroids are of moderate acute toxicity and do not show any evidence for long term toxicity or reproductive . These channels are large integral membrane proteins and are encoded by at least ten genes in mammals the different sodium channels have remarkably similar functional properties but small changes in sodium channel function are biologically relevant as underscored by mutations that cause several human diseases of hyperexcitability. Types and number of excitatory receptors and voltage gated ion channels eg na k neuronal properties or synaptic mechanisms 14152526 clinically hyper excitability in upper mns is directly associated with corticospinal tract abnormality and is characterized by the presence of enhanced muscle tone and increased reflexes including brisk reflexes and spasticity 2728
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